The events after the Cold War have focused attention on the enormous problems for the Organization for the Security and Cooperation (OSCE) in Europe. The Bosnia and Kosovo conflicts tested in the OSCE as a regional security organization. The ethnic conflicts in Bosnia and Kosovo posed a security for the OSCE governance. The proliferation of nuclear weapons, biological and chemical weapons in the hands of antagonistic groups seeking self-determination and terrorists groups could be dangerous for the OSCE goal of political stability in the region.

Party leaders like Radovan Karadzic and Slobodan Miloservic exploit and manipulate claims of ethnicity to rise to power and to booster national pride pose a threat to regional security and governance. These ethno-political conflicts are problematic for the OSCE, because of the time, resources and investments needed to stabilize the conflict region pose challenges to the OSCE as how best to handle refugees and the return of refugees. The economy is in decline because the cities are war torn, the demilitarization of the armed parties to the conflict. The deconstruction of the infrastructure places the people health and safety at risk. Social problems resulting from civil society institutions break down.

Democratic elections that are open and fair. Reinvesting in post-conflict reconstruction for the rebuilding of civil society. Conflict decreases living standards by destroying human, social, and economic capital, and negates development. The OSCE awareness and willingness to be proactive has helped to stabilize the conflict zones in Bosnia and Kosovo. The OSCE willingness to cooperate with the NGO helped to ensure peace and security in the conflict zones.

The OSCE has done well in making simultaneously three ranges of decision in achieving stability to the conflict zones: first on identity, citizenship, the nation state; secondly on the rules, procedures and rights to be established in order to frame the political regime; finally on the attribution and distribution of political power and economic resources. The OSCE, conflict prevention center has played a significant role in the field and assisting the implementation of their mandates.

The OSCE has met the challenge of applying human rights principles to conflict situations. The OSCE has met the challenges in six areas that help to reduce conflict and stabilized the conflict zones (1) OSCE by working in the partnership with other NGOS community groups and government bodies on projects such as community health and community development. (2) The engagement in dialogue with local government leaders and other stakeholders on issues related to conflict prevention or resolution. (3) The ensuring that security forces comply with international standards for the use of force in policing. (4) Screen the military and police assigned for their protection to ensure these personnel have not been involved in human rights abuse. (5) To ensure that participatory democracy is adhered to according to the Dayton Agreement. (6) The OSCE help to reestablishing the framework of governance by strengthening government institutions, restoring law and order and enabling the organization of civil society to work effectively.